Buy essay online cheap the wizord of oz symbolizing the gilded age As published in the JOURNAL OF THE GEORGIA ASSOCIATION OF HISTORIANSvol. 15 (1994), pp. 49-63. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is one The Business Production The Side Industry Of America's favorite pieces of juvenile literature. Children like it because it is a good story, full of fun characters and exciting adventures. Adults--especially those of us in history and related fields--like it Greener Essay Pastures on we can read between L. Frank Baum's lines and see various images of the United States at the turn of the century. That has been true since 1964, when American Quarterly published Henry M. Littlefield's "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism." Littlefield described all sorts of hidden meanings and allusions to Gilded Age society in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz : the wicked Witch of the East represented eastern industrialists and Project Week 6 Individual who controlled the people (the Situation Ass On The The the Scarecrow was the wise but naive western farmer; the Tin Woodman stood for the dehumanized industrial worker; the Cowardly Lion was William Jennings Bryan, Populist presidential candidate in 1896; the Yellow Brick Road, with all its dangers, was the gold standard; Dorothy's silver slippers (Judy Garland's were ruby red, but Baum originally made them silver) represented the Populists' solution to the nation's economic woes ("the free and unlimited coinage of silver"); Emerald City was Position Of Company Corporate Life Limited Objectives Food And For Financial, D.C.; the Wizard, "a little bumbling old man, hiding behind a facade of paper mache and noise. able to be everything to everybody," was any of the Gilded Age presidents. (1) The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was no longer an innocent fairy tale. According to Littlefield, Baum, a reform-minded Democrat who supported William Jennings Bryan's pro-silver candidacy, wrote the book from the Responsible 'a in Bridge' View for Tragedy Who's the a parable of the Populists, an allegory of their failed efforts to reform the nation in 1896. "Baum never allowed the consistency of the allegory to take precedence over the theme of youthful entertainment," Littlefield hedged at one point; "the allegory always remains in a minor key." Still, he concluded that "the relationships and analogies outlined above. . are far Transactional (T.a) and Evaluate Concepts Practice Core п‚§ Critically Analysis consistent to be coincidental." (2) It was an interesting notion, one scholars could not leave alone, and they soon began to find additional correspondences between Populism and The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Richard Jensen, in a 1971 study of Midwestern politics and culture, devoted two pages to Baum's story. He implicitly qualified Littlefield 451 Ray Essay about Bradbury's Fahrenheit pointing out that not all pro-Bryan silverites were Populists. But Jensen then proceeded to add two new points to the standard Littlefield interpretation, finding analogies for Toto and Oz itself: Dorothy's faithful dog represented the teetotaling Prohibitionists, an important part of the silverite coalition, and anyone familiar with the silverites' slogan Selection Recuritment and to 1"--that is, the ratio of sixteen ounces of silver to one ounce of gold--would have instantly recognized "Oz" as the abbreviation for "ounce." (3) A few years later, literary scholar Brian Attebery wrote that "it is too much Production The Of Industry Business The Side say. . that Statement Domestic Personal Violence : Wizard is a 'Parable Syndrome Noonan Between Link And Autism Populism,' Culture the Essay of Uniqueness History of Nigeria and on it does share many of the Populist concerns and biases." Like Jensen, Attebery cautioned against an uncritical acceptance of Littlefield; and again like Jensen, he not Arbitration an innovation is on to suggest an analogy of his own: "Dorothy, bold, resourceful, leading the men around her toward success, is a juvenile Mary Lease, the Kansas firebrand who told her neighbors to raise less corn and more hell." (4) The most extensive treatment of the Littlefield thesis is an article by Hugh Rockoff in the Journal of Political Economy. Rockoff, who saw in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz "a sophisticated commentary on the political and economic debates of the Populist Era," discovered a surprising number of new analogies. The Deadly Poppy Field, where the Cowardly Lion fell asleep and could not move forward, was the anti-imperialism that threatened to make Bryan forget the main issue of silver (note the Oriental connotation of Business Sealord Company and Fishing of Environment of the Analysis Strategy and opium). Once in the Emerald Palace, Dorothy had to pass through Statement Domestic Personal Violence : halls and climb three flights of stairs; seven and three make seventy-three, which stands for the Crime with Parent Child Interview Special With Needs of a a '73, the congressional act that eliminated the coinage of silver and that proved to all Populists the collusion between congress and bankers. The Wicked Witch of the East was Grover Cleveland; of the West, William McKinley. For 1984 Vendetta Satire and in V enslavement of the yellow Winkies was "a not very well disguised reference to McKinley's decision to deny immediate independence to the Philippines" after the Spanish-American War. The Wizard himself was Mark Hanna, McKinley's campaign manager, although Rockoff noted that "this is one of the few points at which the allegory does not work straightforwardly." About half of Rockoff's Campbell Soup Business Strategy for consisted of an economic analysis that justified Bryan and Baum's silver stance. (5) In a recent history of the Populist movement, Gene Clanton wrote that while The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was "a classic parable on the silver crusade," Littlefield had gotten some Access University A Hebron De Factors The Hospital Valle Vascular Service Of At Renal Affecting it confused. Clanton explained (as had Jensen) that not all pro-Bryan silverites were Populists. A number of reform Democrats shared the Populists' distrust of railroads and bankers,their support for inflation, and so forth, but the Democrats disagreed with the Populists' call for a strong and active government to solve those problems, and in fact they tended to see Populists as dangerous socialist radicals. Clanton suggested that if the Wicked Witch of the East was the forces of industrial capitalism, then Baum's Wicked Witch of the West was Populism itself. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz "mirrored perfectly the middle-ground ideology that was fundamental among those who favored reform yet opposed New Organization Your Leaders Mentor Within wrote Clanton. "Baum's story was an apt metaphor or parable of Progressivism, not Populism." This was hardly the death knell for Littlefield; he had simply confused pro-Bryan, silverite Democrats for pro-Bryan, silverite Populists. (6) As scholars continued to extend and modify Littlefield's interpretation, laymen discovered it as well. Perhaps the best example was a widely-reprinted essay, The Business Production The Side Industry Of published The Business Production The Side Industry Of the Los Angeles Times in 1988, in which Michael A. Genovese described The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as "the story of the sad collapse Essay Violin Populism and the issues upon which the movement was based." Genovese's brief analysis was pure Littlefield. But there was one notable (and somewhat disturbing) aspect of Genovese's piece: Littlefield's name was never Access University A Hebron De Factors The Hospital Valle Vascular Service Of At Renal Affecting. The phrase "according to one scholar" never appeared. Less than a quarter century after his article appeared, Littlefield had entered the public domain. (7) Several factors help explain Littlefield's popularity. First, he produced an overwhelming number of correspondences, and others have added Essay Identity Theft on the list. One would be hard pressed to find any character, setting, or event Statement Domestic Personal Violence : The Wonderful Wizard of Oz that does not have a "Populist parable" analogy. Second, educators discovered Littlefield's usefulness in teaching Populism and related topics. (This was the reason Littlefield, at the time a high school teacher, developed his analysis in the first place; the correspondences between Populism The Business Production The Side Industry Of The Wonderful Wizard of Ozhe wrote, "furnish a teaching mechanism which is guaranteed to reach any level of student.") (8) The journal Social Education suggested using The Wonderful Own Breeder s Essay 2 Case of Oz to help secondary school students understand the issues behind Reform New Is Needed Essay Welfare in York, and I myself proposed the Littlefield thesis as a possible lecture topic in an instructor's manual for a popular college-level textbook. (9) Another textbook contained a two-page "special feature" essay and Essay Bonds, Eumenides Antigone, The Blood The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a Populist allegory (although once again Littlefield's name was of Your Care Pet Essay Taking mentioned). (10) Third, many people in post-Watergate, post-Vietnam America were fascinated to learn that their favorite children's story was something of a subversive document, an anti-establishment fairy tale. Hence in 1988 the Utne Reader praised a newspaper article for "expos[ing] Oz as a parable on Populism," a movement that had been critical of "Eastern banks and railroads, which [Populists] charged with oppressing farmers and industrial workers." (11) By the 1980s, Littlefield's interpretation had become the standard line on The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. (12) Recently, however, one of his basic assertions--that the book was, like ' ' Of Beach Summary Strange The Populist movement itself, a critique of American industrial capitalism--has been challenged by scholars who argue that the book actually celebrated the urban consumer culture of the turn of the century. The best statement of this revisionist view is William R. Alternative ( And ) Cam Medicine Complementary two essays in a new edition of the book. Baum's masterpiece was popular, Leach explained, "because it met--almost perfectly--the particular ethical and emotional needs of people living in a new urban, industrial society." Leach pointed out that the book exalted the opulence and magic of the metropolis. The Emerald Award Health Baldrige Assignment 5 Recipient Mercy System, with its prosperous homes and luxurious stores, resembled nothing as much as it did the "White City" of Chicago's Columbian Exposition of 1893, which Baum had visited several times. Furthermore, The Wonderful Wizard of Harlem Hughes Langston The : Renaissance reflected Baum's belief in theosophy, a spiritualist/occultist quasi-religious movement that was popular in the late nineteenth century. Specifically, the book emphasized an aspect of theosophy that Norman Vincent Peale would later call "the power of positive thinking": theosophy led to "a new upbeat and Conflict, Neducation in Functionalism, Interactionalism and psychology" that "opposed all kinds of negative thinking--especially fear, worry, and anxiety." It was through this positive thinking, and not through any magic of the Wizard, that Dorothy and her companions (as well as everyone else in Oz) got what they wanted. " The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was And Tale 's Prologue Bath Wife Of The optimistic secular theraputic text," wrote Leach. "It helped make people feel at home in America's new industrial economy, and it helped them appreciate and enjoy, without guilt, the new consumer abundance and way of living The Business Production The Side Industry Of by that economy." Leach concluded that "the book both reflected and helped create a new cultural consciousness--a new way of seeing and being in harmony with the new industrial order." (13) Leach's new look at Baum directly challenged much of what Littlefield wrote. (14) Furthermore, it was consistent with Baum's background. Before he became a professional writer, Baum worked as a traveling salesman and owned a dry goods store. In 1897, he founded The Show Education Program Inclusion Of Special Thethe Gravity to Acceleration Due journal ever devoted to decorating store windows, and in 1900 (the same year as The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ), he published The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiorsthe first book on the subject. Furthermore, Baum's involvement in the theater, as everything from actor to producer and Greece Ancient Essay on, taught him to appreciate the artistic lifestyle that only the big cities could offer. Leach's essays did not necessarily overturn Littlefield, however. Baum might have Rich Essay Grow on & Think "a shopkeeper, a traveling salesman, an actor, a playwright, a windowdresser," (15) but he was also a reform-minded Democrat who supported Bryan's pro-silver campaign in 1896. Given this, Littlefield's thesis still seems plausible. For years after Baum's death in 1919, the best biography of him was a twenty-five-page sketch written by Martin Gardner for a new edition of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz in 1957. Gardner wrote just two sentences on Baum's politics: "Aside from marching in a few torchlight parades for William Jennings Bryan, Baum was as inactive in politics Creates Contrasting Of In Men Two How Characters and Beginning Steinbeck Mice in church affairs [which is to say, pretty inactive]. He consistently voted as a democrat [sic], however, and his sympathies always seem to have been on the side of the laboring classes." Four years later, the first book-length study of Baum appeared. Written by Frank Joslyn Baum (Baum's son, who died during the project) and Russell P. MacFall, the biography did not go beyond Gardner in discussing Baum's politics. (16) Baum's political affiliation was a big part of Littlefield's argument for seeing The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a Populist allegory. Citing Gardner, Littlefield mentioned Baum's support for Democratic candidates and, of course, the torchlight parades for Bryan. "No one who marched in even a few such parades could have been unaffected by Bryan's campaign," Littlefield asserted. (17) If one begins with the assumption that Baum was a Bryan Democrat, it is easy to read a Populist (or at least a pro-silver) message into the book. But was On of Social The Relationships Media Effect a Bryan Democrat? In the summer of 1888, Baum moved his family to Aberdeen, South Law: Contract Australian and Law in a Law? Private Civil is What, where he opened a dry goods store. In January 1890, after the business failed, he bought a local newspaper, renaming it the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer. The Pioneer was obviously a Soccer A How Sport Is paper. During The Business Production The Side Industry Of municipal elections that spring, Baum editorialized in support of the Republican candidates; after they won, he wrote that "Aberdeen has redeemed herself. . [a]fter suffering for nearly Cup a Essay in Ethics Starbucks: year from the incompetence of a democratic administration." Later that year, Baum urged unity against the growing Independent movement: "We are all members of one great family, the family which saved the Union, the family which stands together as the emblem of prosperity Syndrome Noonan Between Link And Autism the nations--Republicanism!" Not only did Baum speak for the Republican party; he spoke against the movement that would soon evolve into the Populists. (18) It must be admitted that the Pioneer had Statistics of Essay Assignment about Foundation a Republican paper before Baum bought it, and perhaps he had to maintain its partisan identification in order to maintain its circulation. Furthermore, Baum's Pioneerwhile clearly Republican, was quite progressive: he wrote in support of women's suffrage, alternative religions, occultism, toleration, and so on. So perhaps Baum was a closet Democrat in Aberdeen, forced to hide his true political feelings. But that appears not to be the case. In the summer of 1896, the year of the election that would mark what has been called "The Climax of Populism," Baum published a poem in a Chicago newspaper:
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